What Countries Are in the Paris Agreement 2021
Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane are gases that accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent heat from radiating from the Earth`s surface into space, creating the so-called greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the leading international scientific body working on the issue, the concentration of these heat storage gases has increased dramatically since pre-industrial times to levels not seen in at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the main cause of climate change) has increased by 40%, nitrous oxide by 20% and methane by 150% since 1750 – mainly from the combustion of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it is “extremely likely” that these emissions are mainly responsible for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. At the same time, deforestation and forest degradation have also contributed to their fair share of global carbon emissions. By February 2020, all UNFCCC members had signed the agreement and 189 had become parties. The signatories that have not become contracting parties are: Today, 189 countries have acceded to the Paris Agreement. To counter climate change and its negative effects, 197 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at COP21 in Paris on 12 December 2015. The agreement, which entered into force less than a year later, aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and limit the rise in global temperature to 2 degrees Celsius this century, while looking for ways to further limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. INDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally accedes to the agreement. There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations regarding the nature and severity of the targets set by different countries. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to reduce its carbon emissions by 2030 at the latest and to reduce carbon emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels by 2030. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush called on 107 other heads of state at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human interference in Earth`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions for each country and does not include enforcement mechanisms, but rather provides a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually for a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global climate agreement adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. Another important difference between the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol is their scope. Although the Kyoto Protocol distinguishes between Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 countries, this division is unclear in the Paris Agreement, as all parties are required to submit emission reduction plans.  While the Paris Agreement still emphasizes the principle of “shared but differentiated responsibility and capabilities” – the recognition that different countries have different climate action capabilities and obligations – it does not provide for a specific separation between developed and developing countries.  It therefore seems that negotiators will have to continue to address this issue in future rounds of negotiations, even if the discussion on differentiation could take on a new dynamic.
 The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has been extended until 2012. This year, delegates at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (excluding some developed countries that had withdrawn). They also reaffirmed their 2011 commitment at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, to create a new comprehensive climate agreement by 2015 that would commit all major emitters not covered by the Kyoto Protocol – such as China, India and the United States – to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – the future Paris Agreement – is expected to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris Agreement entered into force earlier than planned, in November 2016. The Alliance of Small Island States and Least Developed Countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change, has lobbied to address loss and damage as a stand-alone issue of the Paris Agreement.  However, developed countries were concerned that classifying the issue as a separate measure going beyond adaptation measures would create another provision on climate finance or imply legal liability for catastrophic climate events. The 32-page document provides a framework for global climate action, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, support to developing countries, as well as transparent reporting and strengthening of climate goals. Here`s what he wants to do: Out of 1.
In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the U.S. would withdraw from the deal.  According to Article 28, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date for the United States is November 4, 2020, with the agreement having entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had chosen to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be notified immediately (the UNFCCC entered into force for the United States in 1994) and enter into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration sent an official notice to the United Nations stating that the United States intended to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it was legally allowed to do so.  The formal resignation could not be submitted until the agreement was in force for the United States for 3 years in 2019.   Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change may suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement contains a plan for developed countries – and others that are “able to do so” – to continue to provide funds to help developing countries mitigate and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Compact also created the Green Climate Fund to help mobilize transformative financing with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement set hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale.
When the agreement reached enough signatures on October 5, 2016 to cross the threshold, US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve all the objectives […].